What is Stationarity in Time Series Analysis?

Stationarity in Time Series is one of the common assumptions in many of the time series analysis techniques. A stationary time series (or the underlying process) has mean, variance, and autocorrelation structure that do no change over time. Visually, a stationary time series will be a flat looking series, without trend, constant variance over time, a constant autocorrelation structure over time and no periodic fluctuations. In real-life scenarios lot of time series are not stationary, we need to often transform it to a stationary time series with one of the following techniques:

  1. Differencing the Data: One of the ways in which a time series can be transformed to a stationary time series is by taking the difference of the data. Suppose we are given a time series Z(t), we can create a new series (Yi=Z(i)Z(i1)). There will be one point less than the original data in this new differenced time series. We might be required to difference the data more than once, however, one difference is usually sufficient.
  2. Whenever there is a trend present in the data series, we can fit curve to the data and then model the residuals from that fit. After the trend is removed from the data, the time series often become stationary, or else we can use differencing to convert it into stationary time series.
  3. If the time series has got non-constant variance, we can take the logarithm or square root of the series. This may stabilize the variance in the data. If the data has negative values, we can add a suitable constant to make all the data positive and then apply the transformation. Later, the constant value can then be subtracted from the model to obtain fitted or the predicted values and forecasts for future points.

The above techniques are intended to generate series with constant location and scale. Although seasonality also violates stationarity, this is usually explicitly incorporated into the time series model.

(Source: NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods)

Click Here to Read About Data Analysis Chapter of Your Research Work

509 Comments

  1. Pingback: Google

  2. Pingback: gayhub

  3. Pingback: 1xbet ug

  4. Pingback: sex education

  5. Pingback: intimacy capsules

  6. Pingback: 메리트카지노

  7. Pingback: 우리카지노

  8. Pingback: 퍼스트카지노

  9. Pingback: مباراة اليوم

  10. Pingback: how to use a g spot vibrator

  11. Pingback: Trans Hub Porn

  12. Pingback: eporner

  13. Pingback: order oxycodone online

  14. Pingback: Gay Hub XXX

  15. Pingback: Havanese puppies for sale

  16. Pingback: Mining

  17. Pingback: MILF Porn

  18. Pingback: Online Advertising

  19. Pingback: best broker for loan

  20. Pingback: 샌즈카지노

  21. Pingback: 메리트카지노

  22. Pingback: 코인카지노

  23. Pingback: Mississippi Fake driver's license

  24. Pingback: Buy Oxycodone Online

  25. Pingback: buy kratom online

  26. Pingback: kratom for sleep

  27. Pingback: 우리카지노

  28. Pingback: 퍼스트카지노

  29. Pingback: ROVE CARTS FOR SALE

  30. Pingback: matched betting sites

  31. Pingback: Great Dane puppies for sale

  32. Pingback: Real Estate/Construction Recruitment Firm

  33. Pingback: safestore auto

  34. Pingback: free download for windows 7

  35. Pingback: pc apps download for windows 7

  36. Pingback: free download for windows 8

  37. Pingback: divorce lawyer singapore

  38. Pingback: mp3

  39. Pingback: Nebraska Fake driver's license

  40. Pingback: large canvas art

  41. Pingback: buy onax 2mg online

  42. Pingback: MAGIC MUSHROOM GROW KIT

  43. Pingback: click here

  44. Pingback: Pc reparatur rapperswil

  45. Pingback: Herbal incense

  46. Pingback: Herbal incense

  47. Pingback: Hair Extensions

  48. Pingback: guns for sale craigslist

  49. Pingback: buy shipping containers online

  50. Pingback: Canada Pharmacy

  51. Pingback: usa canada pharmacy

  52. Pingback: bitcoincard

  53. Pingback: Buy Weed Online Northern Ireland.

  54. Pingback: modular buildings for sale

  55. Pingback: 24 awg wire

  56. Pingback: buy card

  57. Pingback: pharmacies in canada

  58. Pingback: delta 8 THC near me

  59. Pingback: Services

  60. Pingback: stealth shipping of cheap cocaine

  61. Pingback: Vidalista 40mg

  62. Pingback: psilocybe cubensis

  63. Pingback: siamese kittens for sale near me

  64. Pingback: End Of Tenancy Cleaning Colliers Wood

  65. Pingback: Guns for sale

  66. Pingback: Web Design and SEO Company In Azerbaijan

  67. Pingback: Used Shipping Containers for Sale

  68. Pingback: buy Instagram followers

  69. Pingback: Buy Dmt Vape pen with Bitcoins online

  70. Pingback: buy shipping container

  71. Pingback: buy cbd hemp flowers in Europe

  72. Pingback: buy disposable gloves uk

  73. Pingback: adhd for sale usa

  74. Pingback: minecraft crossplay

  75. Pingback: Nanimo SEO

  76. Pingback: GOLDEN SUNRISE STRAIN

  77. Pingback: xnxz

  78. Pingback: Website

  79. Pingback: pegging with a strap on

  80. Pingback: SEA CARGO

  81. Pingback: service in canada

  82. Pingback: good tinder profile

  83. Pingback: star wars pinball machine

  84. Pingback: about

  85. Pingback: rabbit vibrator

  86. Pingback: Glock 17 Sights

  87. Pingback: Bàn học thông minh

  88. Pingback: lovoo match spiel

  89. Pingback: oasis free dating

  90. Pingback: ok free dating net

  91. Pingback: adult dating chat sites

  92. Pingback: best sex toys

  93. Pingback: spanking bdsm

  94. Pingback: נערות ליווי בחיפה

  95. Pingback: real dildo

  96. Pingback: mobile homes for rent in westmoreland county

  97. Pingback: Winchester 9422 for sale

  98. Pingback: butt plugs

  99. Pingback: rechargeable vibrator

  100. Pingback: shotgun for sale

  101. Pingback: istanbul pendik escort

  102. Pingback: best canadian pharmacy

  103. Pingback: slot online

  104. Pingback: electric motorcycle

  105. Pingback: myths about women and sex

  106. Pingback: vibrating anal plug

  107. Pingback: Gun Shops near me

  108. Pingback: strap on dildo

  109. Pingback: best sex games

  110. Pingback: g spot vibrator

  111. Pingback: nba hoop troop arcade game

  112. Pingback: pinball machines for sale

  113. Pingback: PARROTS FOR SALE

  114. Pingback: software review

  115. Pingback: abdl dating

  116. Pingback: PULVERIZER

  117. Pingback: free hookup dating sites

  118. Pingback: kratom capsules

  119. Pingback: totally free dating sites

  120. Pingback: kratom for sale

  121. Pingback: dating game killer movie

  122. Pingback: onlinedatingtwo.com

  123. Pingback: buy Instagram likes

  124. Pingback: best delta 8 thc gummies

  125. Pingback: realistic dildo

  126. Pingback: tides today at tides.today

  127. Pingback: keto diet coke

  128. Pingback: Keto die

  129. Pingback: keto diet for beginner

  130. Pingback: Factory License Delhi

  131. Pingback: Marijuana Gummies

  132. Pingback: buy delta 8 THC

  133. Pingback: buy weed

  134. Pingback: bachelor's degree

  135. Pingback: sasha grey pocket stroker

  136. Pingback: rechargeable vibrator

  137. Pingback: anal sex toys

  138. Pingback: rechargeable vibrator

  139. Pingback: buy weed

  140. Pingback: weed near me

  141. Pingback: Seattle Weekly

  142. Pingback: dispensary near me

  143. Pingback: weed near me

  144. Pingback: how long do shrooms stay in your system

  145. Pingback: buy tiktok followers

  146. Pingback: glock 32

  147. Pingback: buy ruger guns online

  148. Pingback: raw garden cartridges

  149. Pingback: ruger guns for sale

  150. Pingback: movers Kelowna

  151. Pingback: Glock Guns for sale

  152. Pingback: Surat utang obligasi

  153. Pingback: Restaurant

  154. Pingback: MURANG'A UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

  155. Pingback: MILF Porn Land

  156. Pingback: istanbul escort

  157. Pingback: tuzla escort

  158. Pingback: Parksville Roofing Company

  159. Pingback: canadian pharmacy

  160. Pingback: Catnapper

  161. Pingback: Sig Romeo

  162. Pingback: Best Exotic Pets

  163. Pingback: 300 blackout mags bulk

  164. Pingback: Barbell Set

  165. Pingback: order whole alligator

  166. Pingback: how to get rid of love handles

  167. Pingback: storage building near me

  168. Pingback: adam and eve vibrators

  169. Pingback: poarol

  170. Pingback: Find out more

  171. Pingback: HBCU Olypmic Token

  172. Pingback: software reviewer

  173. Pingback: Firearms for sale online

  174. Pingback: mango juul pods for sale

  175. Pingback: canada pharmacy canada pharmacy

  176. Pingback: معرفة هوية المتصل

  177. Pingback: buy wax cartridges online

  178. Pingback: kush online

  179. Pingback: where to buy glo extracts

  180. Pingback: Buy Ruger Guns Online USA

  181. Pingback: canada pharmacy canada pharmacy

  182. Pingback: ptsd

  183. Pingback: gay site

  184. Pingback: click here

  185. Pingback: masturbation

  186. Pingback: DEPRESSION

  187. Pingback: penis enlargement sleeve

  188. Pingback: wireless remote control butterfly

  189. Pingback: vacuum erection device

  190. Pingback: eyup escort

  191. Pingback: canada pharmacy

  192. Pingback: Heroin For Sale

  193. Pingback: US Trending News

  194. Pingback: สมัคร happyluke

  195. Pingback: vibrating wand massager

  196. Pingback: male masturbators

  197. Pingback: best sex toys for men

  198. Pingback: best way to clean silicon sex toys

  199. Pingback: AMI Healthcare International Hospital Operations Management

  200. Pingback: avcılar escort

  201. Pingback: kagithane escort

  202. Pingback: esenyurt escort

  203. Pingback: happyluke

  204. Pingback: how to use ben wa balls

  205. Pingback: Microdose Capsules

  206. Pingback: sex education

  207. Pingback: canadianpharmacyking.com

  208. Pingback: male p spot massager

  209. Pingback: sensuelle massager

  210. Pingback: mersin escort

  211. Pingback: buy weed with bitcoin

  212. Pingback: Takeout

  213. Pingback: fun88

  214. Pingback: remote control underwear

  215. Pingback: prostate massager

  216. Pingback: vibrator

  217. Pingback: vibrating stroker

  218. Pingback: Easypulse portable oxygen concentrator

  219. Pingback: silicone vibrator

  220. Pingback: Best Realistic Masturbator

  221. Pingback: learn more

  222. Pingback: lottovip

  223. Pingback: hosting deals

  224. Pingback: ground lease

  225. Pingback: lottovip

  226. Pingback: prostate vibrators

  227. Pingback: pocket masturbator

  228. Pingback: how to masturbate using a dildo

  229. Pingback: realistic dildos

  230. Pingback: معرفة صاحب الرقم

  231. Pingback: Diablo strain

  232. Pingback: 99defi.network

  233. Pingback: catalca escort

  234. Pingback: site de streaming

  235. Pingback: car transport car delivery

  236. Pingback: site de streaming

  237. Pingback: film streaming

  238. Pingback: ctrl coin crypto exchange

  239. Pingback: Source

  240. Pingback: most realistic male masturbator

  241. Pingback: sex and myths facts

  242. Pingback: sex

  243. Pingback: best bullet vibrator

  244. Pingback: w88live

  245. Pingback: pocket vagina

  246. Pingback: best in ottawa

  247. Pingback: st raphael school bhopal

  248. Pingback: walther pdp compact for sale

  249. Pingback: 메이저놀이터

  250. Pingback: 머니상

  251. Pingback: russian clothing

  252. Pingback: How to get to Murchison Falls National Park

  253. Pingback: always

  254. Pingback: Thc Vape oil

  255. Pingback: big chief blackwater og

  256. Pingback: African gray for sale near me

  257. Pingback: dachshund puppies for sale

  258. Pingback: NAPHYRONE FOR SALE

  259. Pingback: us online pharmacies

  260. Pingback: South Leeds Academy

  261. Pingback: sex advice

  262. Pingback: clit sex toys

  263. Pingback: بديل تروكولر

  264. Pingback: aranżacja wnętrz Gdynia

  265. Pingback: free download for pc windows

  266. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  267. Pingback: games for pc download

  268. Pingback: games for pc download

  269. Pingback: free download for windows xp

  270. Pingback: mp3 juices

  271. Pingback: download app apk for windows pc

  272. Pingback: baby sugar gliders for sale

  273. Pingback: Site vitrine Wordpress

  274. Pingback: IT Services Bridgwater

  275. Pingback: Sig Sauer Pistols For Sale

  276. Pingback: Pinball Machines for Sale

  277. Pingback: Livestock for sale

  278. Pingback: Gorilla trekking in Uganda or rwanda

  279. Pingback: Macbook akku reparatur rüti

  280. Pingback: 3 Day Bwindi Gorilla Trekking Tour

  281. Pingback: FARMING EQUIPMENT FOR SALE IN KZN

  282. Pingback: best male sex toys

  283. Pingback: ارقام بنات

  284. Pingback: Serengeti African safari

  285. Pingback: aromatherapy

  286. Pingback: web sajt

  287. Pingback: lowesnet

  288. Pingback: Buy Methadone 10mg online

  289. Pingback: MARIJUANA PUFF BAR

  290. Pingback: springfield edge

  291. Pingback: taurus gx4

  292. Pingback: p320 m17

  293. Pingback: walther ccp m2 9mm

  294. Pingback: ballys slot machines for sale

  295. Pingback: mossberg 590 shockwave for sale

  296. Pingback: buy nembutal online

  297. Pingback: stiiizy-battery near me/

  298. Pingback: magic mushrooms

  299. Pingback: magic mushrooms

  300. Pingback: background check service

  301. Pingback: pods mango

  302. Pingback: armadillo lizard for sale

  303. Pingback: beretta 96 for sale

  304. Pingback: Thc vape juice

  305. Pingback: smith and wesson 45

  306. Pingback: costco gaming chairs

  307. Pingback: discreet weed shop in Miami

  308. Pingback: ethereum mining machine for sale in uk

  309. Pingback: Fennec Fox for Sale Near Me

  310. Pingback: 4 Days Murchison Falls Wildlife Safari

  311. Pingback: gigabyte d33006

  312. Pingback: buy hex dumbbells

  313. Pingback: وكالة تسويق

  314. Pingback: G17 GEN5 MOS FS STANDARD | 9X19MM

  315. Pingback: Browning BL-22

  316. Pingback: stock market community

  317. Pingback: order pills online discreet

  318. Pingback: RissMiner

  319. Pingback: Buy Sig Sauer Guns Online

  320. Pingback: St Giles CofE Primary School

  321. Pingback: dizziness

  322. Pingback: bitcoin

  323. Pingback: alex aniston

  324. Pingback: Uganda Safari

  325. Pingback: Gorilla Trekking

  326. Pingback: beretta guns for sale

  327. Pingback: savage grow plus results

  328. Pingback: live resin cartridges

  329. Pingback: buy sig sauer guns online

  330. Pingback: anami sikin benim

  331. Pingback: pocket vagina

  332. Pingback: masturbators

  333. Pingback: Ketamine powder

  334. Pingback: remington v3 timber

  335. Pingback: Tag Heuer Formula 1

  336. Pingback: dank vape carts for sale

  337. Pingback: canada pharmacy

  338. Pingback: raw garden carts

  339. Pingback: MURANG'A UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

  340. Pingback: happyLuke

  341. Pingback: how to clean black money with vitamin c

  342. Pingback: dankwood

  343. Pingback: best testosterone booster

  344. Pingback: Najam vozila Crna Gora

  345. Pingback: Website

  346. Pingback: Buy Alza Concerta Online

  347. Pingback: Bitcoin Mining Rig

  348. Pingback: asus-phoenix-geforce-rtx-3060-12gb-v2-for-sale

  349. Pingback: Buy Alaskan Thunder Fuck

  350. Pingback: CableFreeTV News

  351. Pingback: Gorilla Trekking Safaris Uganda

  352. Pingback: happyruck

  353. Pingback: TÜM HABERLER

  354. Pingback: Virtual card Create instantly

  355. Pingback: bitcoin virtual card

  356. Pingback: powtoon alternatives

  357. Pingback: hennessy paradis for sale

  358. Pingback: affiliate marketing millionaire

  359. Pingback: order counterfeit money

  360. Pingback: e-cigs for sale australia

  361. Pingback: order ruger guns online

  362. Pingback: solar powered generators

  363. Pingback: top rated portable power stations

  364. Pingback: cheap solar panels for home

  365. Pingback: Gadadhar High School Puri Mpl, Wardno05, Puri - 752001

  366. Pingback: Indian Englis SchoolKesupura Sen. Secondary, Bassi, Jaipur - 303903

  367. Pingback: Avalon Academy, Thiruvananthapuram

  368. Pingback: lions

  369. Pingback: the tanks are coming

  370. Pingback: Methadone for sale

  371. Pingback: vibrator

  372. Pingback: how to masturbate using a silicone rechargeable vibrator

  373. Pingback: walther p22 tactical

  374. Pingback: Microdosing Mushrooms

  375. Pingback: browning citori field grade 20 gauge

  376. Pingback: DailyCBD.com

  377. Pingback: Buy Beretta APX

  378. Pingback: Uganda safari vacations

  379. Pingback: buy Fake driving license

  380. Pingback: buy pentobarbital

  381. Pingback: gbl europe

  382. Pingback: buy ecigarettes online

  383. Pingback: buy kimber guns online

  384. Pingback: e-cigarettes for sale

  385. Pingback: - do-si-dos strain

  386. Pingback: tinder gay dating

  387. Pingback: springfield edge

  388. Pingback: remington tac 13 for sale

  389. Pingback: taurus th40 compact

  390. Pingback: best stiiizy pod

  391. Pingback: sig 716

  392. Pingback: 2cb powder

  393. Pingback: stiiizy store

  394. Pingback: food delivery restaurants

  395. Pingback: guns for sale in European union

  396. Pingback: kel-tec sub 2000 gen 2 for sale

  397. Pingback: cz p10c for sale

  398. Pingback: uca.com.vn

  399. Pingback: Source

  400. Pingback: Magic Mushroom Chocolate Bar for sale

  401. Pingback: gbl for sale uk

  402. Pingback: Buy Gamma - Butyrolactone (GBL) online

  403. Pingback: Buy Xanax pills Online

  404. Pingback: Best Paint Sprayer to Buy

  405. Pingback: cigars for sale USA

  406. Pingback: full gram beezle buzz

  407. Pingback: Последние новости

  408. Pingback: domain hosting buy

  409. Pingback: ruger 22/45 lite for sale

  410. Pingback: how to masturbate using silicone vibrators

  411. Pingback: dildo

  412. Pingback: best g spot vibrator

  413. Pingback: vibrating anal plug

  414. Pingback: buy real driving license uk

  415. Pingback: arid university

  416. Pingback: siskiu t8 for sale

  417. Pingback: ZOHYDRO ER PRECIO

  418. Pingback: vibrators for women

  419. Pingback: double ended dong

  420. Pingback: keltec 22 rifle

  421. Pingback: beginners clitoral stimulator

  422. Pingback: beretta apx for sale

  423. Pingback: mossberg military discount

  424. Pingback: krt disposable

  425. Pingback: Krt vape

  426. Pingback: asic bitcoin miners for sale

  427. Pingback: Krt vape

  428. Pingback: where to buy gbl cleaner

  429. Pingback: buy blue ecstasy twitter pill online

  430. Pingback: Hi-Point carbine for sale

  431. Pingback: rabbit vibrator

  432. Pingback: Mt Kilimanjaro hike

  433. Pingback: sex toy review

  434. Pingback: bitcoin api wallet

  435. Pingback: usd to btc instant exchange

  436. Pingback: Buy Marijuana Online

  437. Pingback: Buy Oxycodone online

  438. Pingback: American Tactical Galeo

  439. Pingback: prepaid visacard

  440. Pingback: real estate

  441. Pingback: Remington golden bullet

  442. Pingback: walther ppq vs hk vp9

  443. Pingback: lottovip

  444. Pingback: glock 43x for sale

  445. Pingback: best fleshlight alternatives

  446. Pingback: wand massagers

  447. Pingback: how to use a remote controlled g spot massager

  448. Pingback: tik tok

  449. Pingback: Ps5 for Sale

  450. Pingback: raw gemstones for sale

  451. Pingback: kel tec ks7

  452. Pingback: Glock 34

  453. Pingback: kadikoy escort

  454. Pingback: bitcoin virtual card

  455. Pingback: sex toy review

  456. Pingback: glo cart flavors

  457. Pingback: deliplus

  458. Pingback: apps download for windows 8

  459. Pingback: download app apk for windows pc

  460. Pingback: free app for laptop

  461. Pingback: free download for windows pc

  462. Pingback: free download for windows pc

  463. Pingback: apps for pc download

  464. Pingback: MineFullTrader

  465. Pingback: pc games for windows 8

  466. Pingback: festival

  467. Pingback: free download for pc

  468. Pingback: Colt Python 2020 For Sale

  469. Pingback: masturbator stroker

  470. Pingback: how to massage your clit using clit suction vibrator

  471. Pingback: lipstick packaging

  472. Pingback: Remington golden bullet in stock

  473. Pingback: PlayStation 5 for Sale

  474. Pingback: Uganda Safari tours & holidays

  475. Pingback: poojaescorts.in

  476. Pingback: learn more

  477. Pingback: Krt carts

  478. Pingback: scrap cars

  479. Pingback: BERETTA PX4 STORM FOR SALE

  480. Pingback: CZ Shadow 2

  481. Pingback: ps5 on sale

  482. Pingback: penis extender

  483. Pingback: Takeout Food

  484. Pingback: windows support rüti

  485. Pingback: Rob Black

  486. Pingback: carrefour

  487. Pingback: Lsd for sale

  488. Pingback: Nursing paper help

  489. Pingback: junk car removal

  490. Pingback: escorts Delhi

  491. Pingback: thrusting rabbit vibrator

  492. Pingback: penis pumping

  493. Pingback: learn more

  494. Pingback: cryptocurrency wallet with virtual card

  495. Pingback: Technology News

  496. Pingback: how to deal with premature ejactulation

  497. Pingback: Pinball machines for sale

  498. Pingback: buy magic mushrooms online

  499. Pingback: Platinum haupia

  500. Pingback: Bubblegum Haupia Strain

  501. Pingback: Watermelon haupia

  502. Pingback: Bubble hash

  503. Pingback: Moroccan hash

  504. Pingback: Litto

  505. Pingback: Bubble hash

  506. Pingback: bahis siteleri

  507. Pingback: 1immobile

  508. Pingback: School of Pure and Applied Sciences Embu University

  509. Pingback: A片